Antibacterial activity of mexican oregano essential oil (Lippia berlandieri) against the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas euvesicatoria

Actividad antibacteriana del aceite esencial de orégano (Lippia berlandieri) contra la bacteria fitopatógena Xanthomonas euvesicatoria

  • Alba Chávez-Dozal New México State University
  • Hugo A. Morales-Morales Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua
  • Soum Sanago New México State University
  • Armando Segovia-Lerma Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua
  • Geoffrey Smith New México State University
Palabras clave: bacterial spot, minimim inhibory concentration, Carvacrol

Resumen

Xanthomonas euvesicatoria causes bacterial spot disease in leaves, roots, fruits and stems of pepper plants. Identification of this phytopathogen in jalapeno seeds from Delicias, Chihuahua, Mexico and diseased plants from New Mexico, USA, was carried out by isolation on semiselective media, pathogenicity assays and biochemical tests. Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri) essential oil was tested in vitro against Xanthomonas euvesicatoria. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were performed and the oil showed an inhibition of bacterial growth in concentrations of 0.01 mg/ml and a bactericidal effect in concentrations of 0.05 mg/ml. Oregano essential oil is reported to have antimicrobial activities due to the effect of high content of carvacrol. Oregano oil had an MIC that was 10 times lower compared to pure carvacrol, since carvacrol content, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/ MS) was only 30%. The antimicrobial effect in vivo was tested using a randomized complete block design model in a greenhouse. Disease severity, xanthomonad incidence as well as chlorophyll indices were calculated showing a strong inhibition of the disease, when seeds or foliage were treated with oregano oil. These results demonstrate the current commonality of xanthomonad pathogens on both sides of the Mexican-American border, and that oregano oil has potent antibacterial activity.

Resumen

Xanthomonas euvesicatoria es la bacteria agente causal de la marchitez bacteriana en hojas, raíces y frutos de chile jalapeño. Se realizó la identificación de este patógeno en las semillas de chile jalapeño provenientes de Delicias, Chihuahua, México y plantas enfermas provenientes del estado de Nuevo Mexico, EUA; a través de cultivo en medios semi-selectivos, ensayos de patogenicidad y pruebas bioquímicas. El aceite esencial del orégano mexicano (Lippia berlandieri) fue probado in vitro contra Xanthomonas euvesicatoria. Pruebas de concentración mínima inhibitoria (CMI) y concentración mínima bactericida (CMB) fueron determinadas y el aceite mostró una inhibición de crecimiento a concentraciones de 0.01 mg/ml y un efecto bactericida a concentraciones de 0.05 mg/ ml. El aceite esencial de orégano muestra actividades antibacterianas gracias al efecto de la alta concentración de carvacrol. El aceite de orégano mostró una CMI que fue 10 veces menor en comparación con el efecto de carvacrol puro, ya que la concentración determinada en el aceite por medio de cromatografía de gases/espectrometría de masas (GC/MS) fue de 30% de carvacrol. El efecto antibacteriano in vivo fue probado utilizando un diseño de bloques completos al azar en un invernadero. La severidad e incidencia de la enfermedad, así como los índices de clorofila, fueron calculados mostrando una inhibición de la enfermedad cuando las semillas u hojas de las plantas de chile se trataron con el aceite de orégano. Estos resultados demuestran la problemática de la bacteria Xanthomonas en las fronteras México-Americanas y que el aceite esencial de orégano ejerce una acción antibacteriana.

Palabras clave: marchitez bacteriana, concentración mínima inhibitoria, Carvacrol.

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Publicado
2020-07-31
Cómo citar
Chávez-Dozal, A., Morales-Morales, H. A., Sanago, S., Segovia-Lerma, A., & Smith, G. (2020). Antibacterial activity of mexican oregano essential oil (Lippia berlandieri) against the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas euvesicatoria: Actividad antibacteriana del aceite esencial de orégano (Lippia berlandieri) contra la bacteria fitopatógena Xanthomonas euvesicatoria. TECNOCIENCIA Chihuahua, 8(2). Recuperado a partir de https://vocero.uach.mx/index.php/tecnociencia/article/view/620
Sección
Medio Ambiente y Desarrollo Sustentable