Caracterización fisicoquímica, reológica y funcional de harina de avena (Avena sativa L. cv Bachíniva) cultivada en la región de Cuauhtémoc, Chihuahua

Physicochemical, rheological and functional characterization of oat flour (Avena sativa L. cv Bachiniva) cultivated in the region of Cuauhtemoc, Chihuahua

  • Fernando Félix Flores-Peña Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua
  • Flavia Yadira Lozano-Quezada Centro de Investigación en Alimentos y Desarrollo, A.C.
  • Arturo Ramos-Martínez Centro de Investigación en Alimentos y Desarrollo, A.C.
  • René Salgado-Delgado Instituto Tecnológico de Zacatepec
  • Víctor Manuel Guerrero-Prieto Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua
  • Salvador Ramírez-Mancinas Centro de Investigación en Alimentos y Desarrollo, A.C.
  • Luis Arturo Bello-Pérez Instituto Politécnico Nacional
  • Paul Baruk Zamudio-Flores Centro de Investigación en Alimentos y Desarrollo, A.C.
Palabras clave: Harina, poder de hinchamiento, solubilidad, espectroscopia de infrarrojo con transformada de Fourier, perfil amilográfico, propiedades térmicas

Resumen

En el presente trabajo se obtuvo una harina a partir del cereal de avena (Avena sativa L.) de la variedad Bachíniva, el cual representa una de las principales fuentes de ingresos para la región de Cuauhtémoc, Chihuahua. La harina se caracterizó fisicoquímica- mente mediante la evaluación de color, poder de hinchamiento/ solubilidad y análisis químico proximal. Se determinaron sus propiedades térmicas, moleculares, de formación de pastas (perfil amilográfico) y reológicas. Los resultados mostraron que la harina de esta avena es alta en proteínas y lípidos (6 y 8%, respectivamente) lo cual es adecuado para regímenes alimenticios en donde se requieren una alta cantidad de estos nutrientes. La temperatura y la entalpia de gelatinización (62 °C y 8 J/g) fueron comparables con los valores reportados en otras variedades de avenas. El perfil amilográfico, la viscosidad y las propiedades funcionales indicaron una posible interacción entre los compuestos no amiláceos y el almidón, lo cual se corroboró con el análisis molecular. Los resultados indicaron que este harina, por sus características fisicoquímicas, reológicas y funcionales puede ser empleada en la industria alimentaria para la producción de pudines, formulaciones infantiles y panes para enfermos celiacos.

Abstract

In this work It was obtained a flour made out of cereal oat (Avena sativa L.) cv Bachiniva, which represents one of major source of income for the region of Cuauhtemoc, Chihuahua. The flour was physicochemically characterized by evaluating color, swelling power/solubility and proximate chemical analysis. Thermal, molecular, formation of pastes (amilographic profile) and rheological properties were determined. The results showed that this oat meal is high in protein and lipid (6 and 8%, respectively) which is suitable for feeding regimes where high amounts of these nutrients are required. The temperature and enthalpy of gelatinization (62 °C and 8 J/g) were comparable to those reported in other varieties of oats. The amylographic profile, viscosity and functional properties indicated a possible interaction between non-starch compounds and starch which was corroborated by molecular analysis. The results indicated that this flour for their physicochemical, rheological and functional properties can be used in the food industry for the production of puddings, infant formula and breads for celiac patients.

Keywords: flour, swelling power, solubility, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, amylographic profile, thermal properties.

Citas

Ayadi, F., C. Bliard & P. Dole. 2011. Materials based on maize biopolymers: Effect of flour components on mechanical and thermal behavior. Starch/Stärke 63(10): 604-615. https://doi.org/10.1002/star.201100010

Ahmad, F., P. A. Williams, J. L. Doublier, S. Durand & A. Buleon. 1999. Physicochemical characterization of sago starch. Carbohydrate Polymers 38: 389-416. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0144-8617(98)00123-4

Åman, P. 1987. The variation in chemical composition of Swedish oats. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica 37(3): 347-352. https://doi.org/10.1080/00015128709436567

Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 2002. Official Methods of Analysis. 17th Edition. AOAC International-Gaithersburg.

Aparicio-Saguilán, A., E. Flores-Huicochea, J. Tovar, F. García- Suárez, F. Gutiérrez-Meraz & L. A. Bello-Pérez. 2005. Resistant starch –rich powders prepared by autoclaving of native and lintnerized banana starch: Partial characterization. Starch/Stärke 57(9): 405-412. https://doi.org/10.1002/star.200400386

Bello-Pérez, L. A., Y. Pano, E. Agama-Acevedo & O. Paredes-López. 1998. Isolation and partial characterization of amaranth and banana starches. Starch/Stärke 50(10): 409-413. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1521-379X(199810)50:10%3C409::AID-STAR409%3E3.0.CO;2-W

Berski, W., A. Ptaszek, P. Ptaszek, R. Ziobro, G. Kowalski, M. Grzesik & B. Achremowicz. 2011. Pasting and rheological properties of oat starch and its derivatives. Carbohydrate Polymers 83(2): 665-671. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2010.08.036

Chávez-Murillo, C. E., G. Méndez-Montealvo, Y. J. Wang & L. A. Bello-Pérez. 2012. Starch of diverse Mexican rice cultivars: Physicochemical, structural, and nutritional features. Starch/Stärke 64(9): 745-756. https://doi.org/10.1002/star.201200016

Dikeman, C. L. & G. C. Fahey. 2006. Viscosity as related to dietary fiber: A review. Critical Reviews in Food Science Nutrition 46(8):649-663. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408390500511862

Doublier, J. L., D. Paton & G. Llamas. 1987. A rheological investigation of oat starch pastes. Cereal Chemistry 64(1):21-26. https://www.cerealsgrains.org/publications/cc/backissues/1987/Documents/CC1987a05.html

Fox, E., K. Shotton & C. Ulrich. 1995. Sigma-Stat: Manual del usuario, versión 2.1 para Windows 95 NT y 3.1. Editorial Jandel Scientific Co.

Galdeano, M., M. V. Eiras, S. Mali & L. A. Bello-Perez. 2009. Physicochemical properties of IAC 7 oat starch from Brazilian cultivars. Ciência e Tecnología de Alimentos 29(4): 905-910. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0101-20612009000400031

Glennie-Holmes, M., G. L. Roberts & T. S. Gibson. 1992. Starch characteristics of Australian oat cultivars. En 4th Proceedings International Oat Conference Adelaide, South Australia.

Goñi, I., A. García-Alonso & F. Saura-Calixto. 1997. A starch hydrolysis procedure to estimate glycemic index. Nutritional Research 17(3): 427-437. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0271-5317(97)00010-9

Hallfrisch, J. & K. M. Behall. 2000. Mechanisms of the effects of grains on insulin and glucose response. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 19(Sup.3):320S-325S. https://doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2000.10718967

Hartunian-Sowa, M. & White, P. J. 1992. Characteristics of starch isolated from oats groats with different amount of lipid. Cereal Chemistry 69(5):172-177. https://www.cerealsgrains.org/publications/cc/backissues/1992/Documents/CC1992a133.html

Hoover, R. & S. P. J. N. Senanayake. 1996. Composition and physicochemical properties of oat starches. Food Research International 29(1):15-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/0963-9969(95)00060-7

Hoover, R. & W. S. Ratnayake. 2003. Starch characteristics of black bean, chick pea, lentil, navy bean and pinto bean cultivars grown in Canada. Food Chemistry 78(4): 489–498. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(02)00163-2

Hoover, R., C. Smith, Y. Zhou & R. M. W. S. Ratnayake. 2003. Physicochemical properties of Canadian oat starches. Carbohydrates Polymers 52(3): 253-261. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0144-8617(02)00271-0

Hoover, R., T. Hughes, H. J. Chung & Q. Liu. 2010. Composition, molecular structure, properties, and modification of pulse starches: A review. Food Research International 43(2): 399-413. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2009.09.001

Huijbrechts, A. M. L., M. Desse, T. Budtova, M. C. R. Franssen, G. M. Visser, C. G. Boeriu & J. R. E. Sudhölter. 2008.Physicochemical properties of etherified maize starches. Carbohydrate Polymers 74(2): 170-184. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2008.02.001

Kaur, M. & N. Singh. 2007. Relationships between various functional, thermal and pasting properties of flours from different Indian black gram (Phaseolus mungo L.) cultivars. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 87(6): 974-984. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2789

Liu, Q., E. Donner, Y. Yin, R. L. Huang & M. Z. Fan. 2006. The physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of selected cereals, tubers and legumes grown in China. Food Chemistry 99(3):470-477. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.08.008

Liu, Y., T. H. Bailey & P. J. White. 2010. Individual and interactional effects of â-glucan, starch, and protein on pasting properties of oat flours. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 58(16):9198-9203. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf1007852

Morris, P. C. & J. H. Bryce. 2000. Cereals: an introduction. En Cereal biotechnology (pp.7). CRC Press. ISBN 9781855736276. http://dl1.fanofood.ir/books/complet%20_cereal%20biotechnology_.pdf

Mua, J. P. & D. S. Jackson. 1995. Gelatinization and solubility properties of commercial oat starch. Starch/Stärke 47(1): 2-7. https://doi.org/10.1002/star.19950470103

Noda, T., Y. Takahata, T. Sato, I. Suda, T. Morishita, K. Ishiguro & O. Yamakawa. 1998. Relationships between chain length distribution of amylopectin and gelatinization properties within the same botanical origin for sweet potato and Buckwheat. Carbohydrates Polymer 37(2): 153–158. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0144-8617(98)00047-2

Oladebeye, A. O., A. A. Oshodi & A. A. Oladebeye. 2009. Physicochemical properties of starches of sweet potato (Ipomea batata) and red cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) cormels. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 8(4): 313-315. http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2009.313.315

Olsen, E. D. 1985. Métodos Ópticos de Análisis. Editorial Reverté. ISBN 9788429143249.

Ovando-Martínez, M., K. Whitney, B. L. Reuhs, D. C. Doehlert & S. Simsek. Effect of hydrothermal treatment on physicochemical and digestibility properties of oat starch. Food Research

International 52(1): 17-25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2013.02.035

Paredes-López, O., L. A. Bello-Pérez & M. G. López. 1994. Amylopectin: Structural gelatinization and retrogradation studies. Food Chemistry 50(4): 411-418. https://doi.org/10.1016/0308-8146(94)90215-1

Paton, D. 1977. Oat starch 1. Extraction, purification and pasting properties. Starch/Stärke 29(5): 149-153. https://doi.org/10.1002/star.19770290502

Paton, D. 1979. Oat starch: Some recents developments. Starch/Stärke 31(6):184-187. https://doi.org/10.1002/star.19790310603

Regand, A., Z. Chowdhury, S. M. Tosh, T. M. S. Wolever & P. Wood. 2011. The molecular weight, solubility and viscosity of oat beta-glucan affect human glycemic response by modifying starch digestibility. Food Chemistry 129(15): 297-304. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.04.053

Rieder, A., S. Ballance & S. H. Knutsen. 2015. Viscosity based quantification of endogenous â-glucanase activity in flour. Carbohydrate Polymers 115(22): 104-111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.08.075

Secretaría de Agricultura, Ganadería, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentación. 2010. Producción Agrícola. Servicio de Formación Agroalimentaria y Pesquera (SIAP).

Salmerón, J. J. 2002. Bachíniva: nueva variedad de avena para temporal con grano de alta calidad industrial. Agricultura Técnica en México 28(1): 85-86. https://www.redalyc.org/pdf/608/60828110.pdf

Steffe, J. F. 1992. Rheological Methods in the Food Process Engineering. Second Edition. Freeman Press. ISBN 0963203614. http://phariyadi.staff.ipb.ac.id/files/2013/02/STEFFE-Rheology-Book.pdf

Tester, R. F. & J. Karkalas. 1996. Swelling and gelatinization of oat starches. Cereal Chemistry 73(2): 271-273. https://www.cerealsgrains.org/publications/cc/backissues/1996/Documents/CC1996a45.html

Thebaudin, J. Y., A. C. Lefebvre & J. L. Doublier. 1998. Rheology of starch pastes from starches of different origins: Applications to starch-based sauces. LWT Food Science and Technology 31(4): 354-360. https://doi.org/10.1006/fstl.1998.0367

Von Atzingen, M. C. & M. E. Silva Machado Pinto. 2005. Evaluación de la textura y color de almidones y harinas en preparaciones sin gluten. Ciencia y Tecnología Alimentaria 4(5):319-323. https://doi.org/10.1080/11358120509487658

Walpole, E. R., H. R. Myers & L. S. Myers. 1999. Probabilidad y estadística para ingenieros. Sexta Edición. Prentice-Hall Hispanoamericana. ISBN 9701702646.

Wang, L. Z. & P. J. White. 1994. Functional properties of oats starches and relationships among functional and structural characteristics. Cereal Chemistry 71(5): 451-458.

Welch, R. W. 1995. Oats in human nutrition and health. En The oat crop: production and utilization (p. 433-471). Chapman and Hall. ISBN 9789401040105.

Wood, P. J. 2007. Cereal β -glucans in diet and health. Journal of Cereal Science 46(3): 230-238. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2007.06.012

Wood, P. J., J. T. Braaten, F. W. Scott, K. D. Riedel, M. S. Wolynetz & M. W. Collins. 1994. Effect of dose and modification of viscous properties of oat gum on plasma glucose and insulin following an oral glucose load. British Journal of Nutrition 72(5): 731-743. https://doi.org/10.1079/bjn19940075

Yaacob, B., M. C. I. MohdAmin, K. Hashim & B. A. Bakar. 2011. Optimization of reaction conditions for carboxymethylated sago starch. Iranian Polymer Journal 20(3): 195-204. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2005.12.003

Zarzycki, P. & A. Sobota. 2015. Effect of Ph on apparent viscosity of wholemeal oat flour water dispersions. International Journal of Food Properties 18(2): 303-315. https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2013.809538

Zeleznak, K. J. & R. C. Hoseney. 1987. The glass transition in starch. Cereal Chemistry 64(2): 121-124. https://www.cerealsgrains.org/publications/cc/backissues/1987/Documents/CC1987a26.html

Publicado
2020-07-27
Cómo citar
Flores-Peña, F. F., Lozano-Quezada, F. Y., Ramos-Martínez, A., Salgado-Delgado, R., Guerrero-Prieto, V. M., Ramírez-Mancinas, S., Bello-Pérez, L. A., & Zamudio-Flores, P. B. (2020). Caracterización fisicoquímica, reológica y funcional de harina de avena (Avena sativa L. cv Bachíniva) cultivada en la región de Cuauhtémoc, Chihuahua: Physicochemical, rheological and functional characterization of oat flour (Avena sativa L. cv Bachiniva) cultivated in the region of Cuauhtemoc, Chihuahua. TECNOCIENCIA Chihuahua, 8(3), 152-162. Recuperado a partir de https://vocero.uach.mx/index.php/tecnociencia/article/view/611

Artículos más leídos del mismo autor/a