Aspectos a considerar por los viticultores de Chihuahua en la nutrición de vid para vino

Aspects to consider by winegrowers of Chihuahua in the nutrition of wine grapevine

  • Dámaris Leopoldina Ojeda-Barrios Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua
  • Aída Rodríguez-Andujo Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua
  • Gustavo Rogelio López-Ochoa Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua
  • Arwell Nathán Leyva-Chávez Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua
  • Silva Amanda García-Muñoz Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua
Palabras clave: Vitis vinifera, contenido nutricional, muestreo foliar, fertilización

Resumen

El cultivo de la vid (Vitis vinifera L.) es uno de los más antiguos en la historia del hombre. Se cree que esta planta es originaria de una zona situada entre el Mar Caspio y el Mar Negro. Los antiguos métodos de cultivo de la vid están siendo remplazados por técnicas más modernas que consisten principalmente en sistemas de riego y fertilización que permiten un cultivo más controlado. La nutrición y la fertilización de la vid tienen una importancia esencial en el cultivo moderno de la viña. Lograr buenos rendimientos y calidad del fruto depende en gran medida de la nutrición del cultivo. El requerimiento de nutrientes por los diferentes órganos de la planta durante cada periodo del ciclo de crecimiento, es muy importante para establecer programas de fertilización. Los análisis de suelo disponibles y comportamiento varietal a diferentes condiciones de nutrición permitirán poco a poco ajustar las recomendaciones. Así mismo, se sugiere la realización de análisis foliares para evaluar los niveles de suficiencia para las condiciones ambientales de cada cultivo. El presente escrito pone de manifiesto la importancia de la adecuada nutrición y fertilización del cultivo de la vid con el propósito de producir vinos de calidad en Chihuahua. Las recomendaciones formuladas deben ser tomadas como genéricas, hasta disponer de suficiente información para brindar recomendaciones definitivas, ya que las condiciones climáticas, varietales y de suelo son diferentes en las regiones donde se cultiva este frutal.

Abstract

The growing of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the oldest in human history. It is believed that this plant is native to an area between the Caspian and the Black Sea. Currently, the old methods of growing grapevines are being replaced by modern techniques that mainly consist of irrigation and fertilization systems which allow a more controlled cultivation. Nutrition and fertilization of grapevines are of essential importance in the modern farming of vineyards. The knowledge of the requirements of different plant organs during each growing cycle, in order to obtain good yields and fruit quality, depend heavily on crop nutrition. The available soil analysis and varietal behavior at different nutritional conditions allow slowly adjust the recommendations. Likewise, it is suggested the realization of foliar analysis for assessing the levels of sufficiency for the environmental conditions of each crop. This paper highlights the importance of adequate nutrition and fertilization regarding grapevine cultivation for producing quality wines in Chihuahua. Until having adequate information to provide definitive recommendations, the formulated suggestions should be considered as generic due to the climatic conditions and soil varieties are different in the regions where this fruit grows.

Keywords: Vitis vinifera, nutritional content, foliar sampling, fertilization.

Citas

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Publicado
2020-11-02
Cómo citar
Ojeda-Barrios, D. L., Rodríguez-Andujo, A., López-Ochoa, G. R., Leyva-Chávez, A. N., & García-Muñoz, S. A. (2020). Aspectos a considerar por los viticultores de Chihuahua en la nutrición de vid para vino: Aspects to consider by winegrowers of Chihuahua in the nutrition of wine grapevine. TECNOCIENCIA Chihuahua, 6(2), 77-83. https://doi.org/10.54167/tch.v6i2.677
Sección
El científico frente a la sociedad

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